29 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

In order to stimulate sales and maintain price points on new properties, sellers (and developers) will offer incentives to buyers versus lowering the price of a piece of property. A common incentive is to include a “decorating allowance”. Decorating allowances can be any amount but common ones are between $5,000 and $10,000. This basically means that the purchaser will be credited on the statement of adjustments the amount of the decorating allowance at the lawyer’s/notary office when closing.

However, decorating allowances can pose a problem with obtaining financing. Often times, the lender will reduce the amount of the mortgage proceeds by the amount of the decorating allowance. This is because the lender will not lend on perceived credit. A decorating allowance is perceived by the lender as credit.

What does this mean? When you apply for a mortgage, you are applying for the full purchase price of the property. If the new property price is $500,000, you are applying for $500,000 plus GST minus the down payment of at least 5% ($25,000). The total mortgage amount to be applied for equals $500,000 (purchase price $500,000 + GST ($25,000) – down payment ($25,000) = $500,000).

However, the lender will not lend on the decorating allowance, so the lender will release the mortgage amount minus the decorating allowance. For example, if the decorating allowance is $5,000, then the mortgage proceeds will be $495,000 instead of the $500,000 originally applied for, which leaves you $5,000 short for the purchase price. The seller will then credit your mortgage $5,000 (decorating allowance) which will make your mortgage $5,000 less (mortgage of $495,000). But keep in mind, you have to provide the full $500,000 as this is the purchase price.

Bottom line…. if you accept a “decorating allowance” it will be a credit to your mortgage and you have to provide the cash for the decorating allowance up front as the lender will not lend on a decorating allowance.

24 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

We all know the real estate industry is hot right now and for many getting into the housing market, it can be a pipe dream. With tightening government and lending regulations, historically low interest rates and soaring housing prices, it can be a daunting endeavour for anyone.

Whether you are a first time home buyer, wanting to upsize to accommodate your growing family or purchasing an investment property, these are the factors that lenders will be looking at. This will determine which mortgage type and interest rate will be available to you.

Know Your 5 C’s:

Collateral – The property itself that you are hoping to purchase.

Capital – Where is your down payment coming from? At a minimum, you need 5% down for a “high ratio” insured mortgage or a “conventional” mortgage with 20% down. This money can come from your own resources or can be gifted from a family member. Requirements will vary, so make sure to check with your mortgage professional.

Credit – Do you have proven credit and show a good history of repayment?

Capacity – The most important by far! How are you going to pay for your mortgage? Proof of income and requirements differ depending on whether you are salaried, self- employed, paid hourly or somewhere in between!

Character – Are you a super person? This is the least important factor to lenders these days.

Just as important to consider, when deciding on your mortgage, is to determine your current financial situation and longer term goals. This will help you decide which mortgage term and amortization (for example a 5 year term with a 25 year amortization) and mortgage rate (variable or fixed) is best for you. Finally, don’t forget to discuss the FEATURES that come with your mortgage as this could save you thousands of dollars and potential grief over the term of the mortgage. These features can include pre-payment options, lower early payout penalties and portability, providing you with flexibility and options for paying down your mortgage faster or making changes, should the need arise.

Mortgages are NOT a one size fits all, so always make sure to contact and discuss your options with a licensed mortgage professional BEFORE preparing to find the home of your dreams.

23 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

We often see ads from the major lenders offering cash back incentives on their Mortgage products.

Gone are the days where a Cash Back Mortgage could be used to facilitate a purchase without the required minimum of a 5% down payment. Cash Back incentives are now made available for other enticing uses; New Furniture and Appliances, Renovations and the other great hook…..Apply the cash back portion directly on your Mortgage for a better effective rate!

Just a few weeks ago, I was emailed an offer from a major lender who shall remain unnamed;

“NEW PROMO … Cash back for purchases. Effective 5 year Rate as low as 2.62%….”

First off, the Cash Back Mortgages are offered at a premium (higher) compared to other standard rates available. The ploy suggested by the lender here is pay it straight down on principle and lower your effective interest rate over time.


The kicker here and warning to all….there IS a catch! If you are to break the mortgage midterm, whether to sell your home or refinance, you not only have to pay the interest penalty, you also have to return the Cash Back portion to the bank. Even if you used it to pay down your Mortgage. This is in the fine print on the websites and in your contract for you to see.

I have seen this happen to a few people that I know and it ended up being a $10,000 – $20,000 factor in their decision not to move or change careers!

There are other more cost effective ways to obtain financing in better programs such as Purchase Plus Improvements, or Home Equity Lines of Credit (HELOC), that expose you to less future risk and still provide you with flexibility to accomplish your goals.

This is why you need a certified Mortgage Broker.  I know of these programs and can offer advice on which ones most suit your situation.

21 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

Congratulations you have made it through one of the toughest financial times in your life. It feels good to have this under control and know there is a light at the end of the tunnel. I too have been down this road in 1998 and now I educate the RIGHT way to have a plan.

There is no shame in going through either a consumer proposal or bankruptcy. Life throws wrenches into our well laid out plans. This is why we have these financial resources to get us back on our feet.  What is most important is that we don’t make the same mistakes again, really get to know how the mortgage and credit world works and use a mortgage planner along with your trustee or debt counsellor to have a plan of action!

There are no quick fixes or programs to get you back on track! Don’t get sold on some “swindler” taking advantage of your situation. There is a company out there that will loan you $2,500 that you pay back over 2 years and they report it to bureau for you. The cost – $900! That’s crazy and completely unnecessary.

Here are the Coles notes on what you need to know for those in consumer proposal. Remember, every situation is unique, so always have an experienced broker work with you:

  • You can refinance your home when in a consumer proposal and pay it out. You need more than 20% equity to do this. The sooner you pay it off, the faster it comes off your credit bureau.

  • If you are going with an INSURED mortgage (ie. 5-20% down) then you must be discharged from consumer proposal for two years and your credit has to be re-established.

  • Most lenders want the consumer proposal paid in full prior to mortgage approval. Very few will look your deal while in proposal.

  • Area dependent – Fort Mac or small rural communities are harder to get approvals.

  • We can use a bundled product strategy with a 1st mortgage to 80% LTV and 2nd mortgage to 90% to get your approval. Expensive, but works for many clients.

  • You want to plan to have some savings that are more than just your down payment if you are buying. Don’t be house rich and cash poor.

  • Sometimes we can use secondary credit like your car insurance, cell phone, or your rental payments to a landlord. If we can prove good repayment for the last couple years, we should be able to take it to a bank.

  • Also, you really need to ensure that, at the three year mark after you are done, that your consumer proposal is removed from credit bureau. I have seen someone refinance 2 years into their 5 year proposal and pay it out and forget to remove it from the bureau a  year later, so it keeps hurting your score and years of damage for no reason.

How long does a consumer proposal stay on a credit report?

Once you enter into a consumer proposal, it will start reporting on both Equifax and TransUnion credit reports within 30 days. Depending on your consumer proposal agreement with creditors, you will be making payments in a consumer proposal generally between three to five years.

Consumer Proposal will stay on your credit report for 3 years from the date you are discharged (made your last payment) regardless if you are looking at your Equifax or TransUnion report.

 How To Qualify For a Mortgage Post Consumer Proposal

Where do I start in building my credit again?

You can start rebuilding your credit as soon as you file your proposal. Bankruptcy is a bit different. You need to aim for TWO credit cards, open for TWO years, with an eventual available credit of $2500 each.  Just get TWO that start reporting.

  1. Apply for a secured credit card with HomeTrust Visa. You give them $500, they give you a credit card.

  2. Affirm Financial will approve $1000 credit card UNSECURED to those that are in consumer proposal.

  3. Scotia No Fee Credit Card

  4. TD Secured Credit Card

  5. Capital One Secured Credit Card

  6. Peoples Trust Secured Credit Card

Your credit and what have you can do to make it better:

They are lending YOU money, so a good broker will need to explain your situation, who you are, why you had issues and what you have done to improve your situation. This is called the 5 C’s of credit. This is a method used by lenders to determine the credit worthiness of potential borrowers. The system weighs five characteristics of the borrower, attempting to gauge the chance of default or you being a chronic mismanager of debts.

  1. Character – When lenders evaluate character, they look at stability — for example, how long you’ve lived at your current address, how long you’ve been in your current job, and whether you have a good record of paying your bills on time and in full. If you want a loan for your business, the lender may consider your experience and track record in your business and industry to evaluate how trustworthy you are to repay.

  2. Capacity – refers to considering your other debts and expenses when determining your ability to repay the loan. Creditors evaluate your debt-to-income ratio, that is, how much you owe compared to how much you earn. The lower your ratio, the more confident creditors will be in your capacity to repay the money you borrow.

  3. Capital – refers to your net worth — the value of your assets minus your liabilities. In simple terms, how much you own (for example, car, real estate, cash, and investments) minus how much you owe.

  4. Collateral – refers to any asset of a borrower (for example, a home) that a lender has a right to take ownership of and use to pay the debt if the borrower is unable to make the loan payments as agreed. Some lenders may require a guarantee in addition to collateral. A guarantee means that another person signs a document promising to repay the loan if you can’t.

  5. Conditions – Lenders consider a number of outside circumstances that may affect the borrower’s financial situation and ability to repay, for example what’s happening in the local economy. If the borrower is a business, the lender may evaluate the financial health of the borrower’s industry, their local market, and competition.

20 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

Since an increasing number of lenders are moving towards collateral charge mortgages these days, it has never been more important to understand the differences between a collateral and standard charge mortgage.

The primary difference is that a collateral charge mortgage registers the mortgage for more money than you require at closing. For instance, up to 125% of the value of the home at closing with TD Canada Trust or 100% through ING Direct and many credit unions, instead of the amount you need to close your transaction (as is the case with a standard charge mortgage).

The major downside to a collateral mortgage becomes evident at your mortgage renewal date. For borrowers who want to keep their options open at maturity and have negotiating power with their lender, this isn’t the best product feature because collateral charge mortgages are difficult to transfer from one lender to another.

In other words, if you want to change lenders in order to seek a better product or rate in the future, you have to start from the beginning and pay new legal fees, which range from $500 to $1,000. With a standard charge mortgage, in most cases, the new lender will cover the charges under a “straight switch” in order to earn your business.

In addition, with a collateral charge, it could be difficult to obtain a second mortgage or a home equity line of credit (HELOC) unless your home significantly appreciates in value.

Lenders offering collateral charge mortgages promote the benefit that it makes it easier and more cost effective to tap into your equity for such things as debt consolidation, renovations or property investment. There’s no need to visit a lawyer and pay legal fees – the money is available as your mortgage is paid down. Yet, if you read the fine print, you may still have to re-qualify at renewal.

A standard charge mortgage gives you the ability to move to another lender at renewal should you want to without incurring legal fees, and many borrowers find it more beneficial to keep their options open. If you need to borrow more with a standard charge mortgage, you have the option of a second mortgage or a HELOC, which also enables you to take money out as your mortgage is paid down.

Navigating through the mortgage process alone can be tricky. At Dominion Lending Centres, we have access to multiple lenders and we can help ensure you receive the product and rate catered to your specific needs.

20 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

Short answer: the longest possible amortization you can get!

However, the goal is to get the longest amortization possible, but then increase the payment or make lump sum payments to move the amortization to the lowest possible and therefore be mortgage free faster. I will explain more later.

Amortization is the total authorized repayment period of a mortgage. If you have a hi-ratio mortgage, by law – government guidelines, the maximum is 25 years. However, if you have a conventional mortgage or, in other words, at least 20% down or 20% equity, then you can amortize up to 30 years and in some cases with some of our lending partners, 35 years. Question: Why would you want a longer amortization? Well qualifying is based upon the payment. So it is easier to qualify with a longer amortization as a longer time frame means a lower payment. For example, you could qualify at 30 years amortization, but elect to pay bi-weekly accelerated based upon a 25 year amortization (an effective amortization of 22 years). The benefit of this strategy is that you can go back to the original amortization, less time elapsed, should you ever need to.

Let’s look at an example:

Mortgage of $300,000. Payment of $1,200/month based on a 30 year amortization. However, you elect to pay bi-weekly accelerated based on a 25 year amortization (effectively an amortization of 22 years – amortization is a function of payment). So bi-weekly is $680. However, 10 years into the mortgage you suffer a set back and are temporarily out of work. Only your spouse continues to work. You can approach the lender to “re-amortize” your mortgage, meaning 30 years less time elapsed, so effectively 20 years. However, in the 10 years that have elapsed, you have been making accelerated payments so your mortgage balance is lower than it would have been otherwise. The result is that your re-amortized payment is $1,000/month! Effectively built-in payment reduction insurance at no cost! Note: you could also use this strategy if rates were to rise substantially and you want to lower your payment!

Another reason to opt for longer amortization: Rentals, longer amortization means better cash flow! With a rental property, cash flow is King! If it pays for itself every month and the interest is tax deductible, who cares how long it takes to repay the mortgage? Every month it is building equity and eventually you will have enough equity you can refinance it to get a down payment to buy the next property and build up your rental property portfolio!

14 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

What does all that technical mumbo jumbo mean? Here are some common mortgage related terms.

Getting a mortgage can be a daunting task. There is so much to know and understand including some pretty confusing language. Borrowers are often confused by terminology like the difference between amortization and term.

And by the way,


The period of time you are under contract with a specific lender at the interest rate that they are providing for that time period


A term used to describe the period of time over which the entire mortgage is to be paid assuming regular payments. Usually 25 or 30 years.

Here are some other mortgage related definitions.


An independent assessment of the property by a qualified individual.

Closed mortgage

A mortgage that cannot be repaid or prepaid, renegotiated or refinanced prior to maturity, unless stated in the agreed upon terms.

Closing costs

Costs that are in addition to the purchase price of a property and which must be paid on the closing date. Examples include legal fees, land transfer taxes, and disbursements.

Closing date

The date on which the mortgage closes either in the case of a refinance or new purchase.

Debt service ratio

The percentage of the borrower’s income used for monthly payments of principal, interest, taxes, heating costs, condo fees (if applicable) and debts. GDS is gross debt service – how much you spend on Principal, Interest, Taxes and Heating. TDS is total debt service – GDS plus all other debt payment obligations.


A homeowner is ‘in default’ when he or she breaks the terms of a mortgage agreement, usually by not making required mortgage payments or by not making payments on time.

Down payment

The money that you pay up-front for a house. Down payments typically range from 5%-20% of the total value of the home, but can be anything above 5%, if you qualify.

Early Discharge Penalty

A penalty you may pay your lending institution for breaking the mortgage contract early. This is usually 3 months interest or the Interest Rate Differential (IRD), whichever is larger. See below for IRD.


The difference between the market value of a property and the amount owed on the property. This difference is the amount a homeowner actually owns outright.

Home Equity Line of Credit

A loan that is secured against your house, like your mortgage, but you obtain a maximum amount that you may borrow but only borrow in the amounts that are needed. You only make payments, minimum is interest only, on what you have borrowed at any given time.

High ratio mortgage

A mortgage where the borrower is contributing less than 20% of the value of the property as the down payment. The borrower may have to pay a mortgage default insurance premium such as CMHC insurance, usually tacked onto the mortgage amount.

Interest Rate Differential

A way lenders calculate the penalty for discharging a mortgage before the end of a closed mortgage contract.

The difference between the interest that the financial institution will make if you continued your mortgage to the end of the contract and what they will make by loaning it to someone else at the current interest rate.

Land transfer tax

A tax that is levied (in some provinces) on any property that changes hands.

Lump sum payment

An extra payment that you make to reduce the amount of your mortgage, usually as stipulated in your mortgage contract.


A loan that you take out using property as the collateral.

Mortgage broker

A company or individual that finds mortgage financing for individuals and companies whether for purchase, refinance, lender switches, etc. A broker does not actually lend money but seeks out a lender and arranges the mortgage terms.

Mortgage default insurance

Required if you are contributing between 5% and 20% of the value of the property as the down payment or to satisfy lender requirements, when necessary.


Mortgagee is the lender; mortgagor is the borrower.

Mortgage life insurance

This form of insurance pays the outstanding balance of your mortgage in full if you die or become disabled. This is different from home or property insurance, which insures your home and its contents.

Mortgage interest rate

The percentage of interest that you pay on top of the principal amount of the loan.

Open mortgage

A mortgage which you can pay off, renew or refinance at any time. The interest rate for an open mortgage is usually higher than a closed mortgage rate.


Transferring an existing mortgage from one home to a new home when you move. This is known as a “portable” mortgage.


Usually renegotiating the terms of your mortgage, often increasing the amount of your current mortgage, usually at a new interest rate. The term of the new mortgage is usually equal to or greater than the term remaining on your current mortgage. Often the existing mortgage is paid out and a new one is established with a different lender.

Variable rate mortgage

A mortgage with an interest rate that changes with prime rate, usually expressed as an amount plus or minus prime rate.

11 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

So, you’ve worked hard to save every penny and have managed to finally afford the down payment necessary on a home. You have searched high and low, only to find the house of your dreams at a price you can afford. Though your credit rating is good and you have a stable job, there are some key things to avoid while waiting for your mortgage to be approved.

Here are 4 things you must absolutely avoid to ensure that you get that dream house:

1. Buying a Vehicle

Your current car may have finally given up or a great deal has arisen, but before making any decision on a new vehicle, check with your mortgage professional. You need to ensure that the numbers you provided on your mortgage application hold true in order to be approved!

2. Changing your Credit or Payment Routine

Before putting extra money towards a debt or changing your payment schedule on any liability, you must check with your mortgage professional. Again, anything that doesn’t align to the information you provided on your mortgage application could put your approval in jeopardy.

3. Changing Jobs

There are many opportunities and challenges that come with any job, but before deciding to drastically change your employment situation, keep the following in mind:

  • If you are accepting a new position you need to ask if you will be given a probation period. Any mortgage lender will not accept probationary employment on a mortgage application.
  • If your income situation is changing, such as receiving bonuses, overtime, or commissions, you could be putting your approval in limbo. This is risky because these job perks require a 2 year history before a lender will accept them as income.
  • If you cannot stand your job any longer and are considering leaving the position, you need to talk to your mortgage professional immediately. The information you provide on your application must check out, especially when it comes to your employment. Most likely, you will need to wait to leave your job until after the mortgage has been approved and you’ve taken possession of the home or you’ll risk losing your dream house.
  • If you are considered a contractor or self-employed person, you must provide a 2 year history in order to be approved for a mortgage. If you are considering going into this line of work you’ll need to wait until after you take possession.

4. Making Payments Late

While waiting for your mortgage to be approved, make sure you make every payment early or on time! If your credit experiences even a slight drop because of a late payment or maxed out credit card, a lender will not approve your mortgage and will cancel the application.

Getting approved for a mortgage doesn’t have to be difficult! As long as you do your due diligence and know all the information, you will be on the path to a happy home-buying process.

8 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

Saving for a down payment is often one of the biggest challenges facing young people looking to break into the real estate market.  The source of your down payment could come from your own savings, a gift from a family member, your RRSP if you’re a first time home buyer or from the proceeds of selling your current home.

No matter where your down payment comes from, one thing that is for certain is your lender will be verifying your down payment prior to full approval. It’s required by all lenders to protect against fraud and to prove that you are not borrowing your down payment, which can change your lending ratios and your ability to repay your mortgage.


1. Own Savings/Investments:  If you’ve saved enough money for your down payment, congratulations!  What your lender will want to see is a 3 month history of any source accounts used for your down-payment such as your savings account, TFSA (Tax Free Savings Account) or Investment account.

Your statement will need to clearly show your name and your account number.  Any large deposits outside of your normal contributions will need to be explained i.e.  you sold your car and deposited $12,000 or you received your bonus from work.  If you have transferred money from one account to another you will need to show a record of the money leaving one account and arriving in the other.  The lenders want to see a paper trail of where the money came from and how it got in your account.  This is mainly to combat money laundering and fraud.

2. Gifted Down Payment:  Especially in the pricey Metro Vancouver and Toronto real estate markets, the bank of Mom and Dad is becoming a more popular source of down payments for young home buyers.  You will need a signed gift letter from your family member that states the down-payment is indeed a gift and no repayment is required on the funds.

Be prepared to show the funds on deposit in your account no later than 15 days prior to closing.  Again, the lender wants to see a transaction record.  i.e. $25,000 from Mom’s account transferred to yours and a record of the $25,000 landing in your account.  Documents must show account number and name.

Gifted down payments are only acceptable from immediate family members (parents, grandparents, siblings). You can learn more about gifted down payments and get a sample gift letter here.

3. Using your RRSP:  If you’re a First Time Home Buyer, you may qualify to use up to $25,000 from your Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) for your down payment.  To see if you qualify for the Home Buyer’s Plan to use your RRSP’s as a down payment visit here.  You will need to complete a Form T1036 to withdraw your funds without penalty.

Verifying your down payment from your RRSP is just like verifying from your savings/investment accounts.  You will need to show a 3 month history via your account statements with your name and account number on them.  Funds must have been in your account for 90 days.

4. Proceeds From Selling Your Existing Home:  If your down payment is coming from the proceeds of selling your current home then you will need to show your lender a fully executed purchase and sale agreement between you and the buyer of your home.  If  you have an outstanding mortgage on the property, be prepared to provide an up-to-date mortgage statement as well.

5. Money From Outside Of Canada:  Using funds from outside of Canada is acceptable but be prepared to have the money on deposit in a Canadian financial institution at least 30 days before your expected closing date.  Verifying your down payment from overseas will also require that you provide a 90 day history of your source account.

No matter what the source is, verifying your down payment will require you to show documentation of where the money originated from and be ready to explain any large deposits.  Making regular contributions into your savings or investment accounts will help develop a pattern of deposits and avoid any red flags.  Don’t stockpile your cash and make large lump-sum deposits.

Most lenders will want to see that you have 1.5% of the purchase price on deposit as well to cover your closing cost.  If you buy a home for $650,000 you will need a minimum of 5% down ($32,500) and another $9,750 (1.5%), for your closing cost.  You will need to show a total of $42,250 available on deposit.

4 Sep



Posted by: Mike Hattim

About 4 years ago, my wife and I bought a house in North Vancouver, BC. It was built in 1959 and was in need of some updates. We gutted the basement to the studs and converted it to a 2 bedroom suite. We put in new insulation (and topped up the existing attic insulation), put in a new furnace/heat pump, got new windows/doors, installed 2 bathroom fans, and got a new hot water tank.

It wasn’t well known at the time (there was hardly any advertising for it), but both the Federal and Provincial governments were offering rebates for making your home more energy efficient. I knew this because of what I do. These are things that we were going to do anyway so why not get some free money for it? Here’s what we did and what you’d have to do in order to take advantage of any rebates:

-hire an energy advisor (around $300) to come to your home BEFORE you start any work. They’ll do an energy assessment of your home and can give you suggestions on what will help improve your energy efficiency

-get the work done

-have the energy advisor come back to your home and document all of the changes that you made (you’ll need to have all of your receipts handy). They look after submitting for your rebate(s)

-deposit your rebate cheque (it’s also tax free which is an added bonus)

In my personal example, we maxed out both the Federal and Provincial rebates which totalled $12,000 at the time and improved our energy efficiency by almost 50% which was huge. We now save (on average) over $100 per month on our energy costs. $12,000 was really nice to get (although our renovation costs were FAR more than what we got back, it’s nice to get something).

Unfortunately, the Federal program is no longer around as it was limited to a certain number of households. Most provinces have their own energy rebate programs. In B.C., you can still receive thousands of dollars in rebates.

Does it make sense to apply for a rebate if you’re looking at changing 1 window or adding 1 bathroom fan? Probably not.

Yes we did do an extensive renovation. Yes it was during the time when rebates were being offered by both governments. My point is that new rebates are always being offered (again not really advertised) and so it’s important to stay in touch with your Dominion Lending Mortgage Broker on what’s available out there. More and more of my clients are renovating the homes that they’re buying, so this is just an added benefit.

Not planning on renovating your home anytime soon? There are other things that you can do to save some money. Do you have a pink or mint green toilet that you want to replace? Many municipalities offer rebates for buying low flush toilets. You can also buy weather-stripping at your local hardware store for about $10 and put it around your doors to help prevent drafts. It’s very easy to do and makes a big difference.

You can check to see what’s available in your province by checking out:

In B.C., please check out:

When in doubt, please consult your local Dominion Lending Centres Mortgage Broker for details on what’s out there and where to find it.

In the future, I believe that 2 things will really help make homes more marketable:

-being more energy efficient (energy costs are always going up)

-having a secondary suite to help pay your mortgage (especially in high priced markets such as Vancouver)